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流沙有时比岩石更坚固

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发表时间:2021-02-23 21:47

古代,帝王将相和达官贵人千方百计把墓穴建造得坚固、牢靠,不能说坚不可摧,但用坚如磐石、固若金汤来形容恐不为过。其目的是为了防备盗墓者盗挖,可事实是,许多墓穴仍然被挖被盗,有的被洗劫一空。


河南上蔡有座古墓,建造于春秋时代。2005年考古工作者发掘时发现,古墓上被挖开了大大小小17个洞,说明盗墓者不知光顾过多少次。从洞里的器皿、古钱币、矿泉水瓶等遗留物考证,盗墓者来自于不同的朝代,最早的盗墓者来自战国时代,最近的来自现代。他们都对这座墓穴觊觎已久,想盗取里面的金银财宝。他们费了多少心思无从考究,**可以考证的是,他们都半途而废,无功而返。因为,考古工作者打开古墓之后发现,里面的藏品大都保存完好。


难道这座古墓有什么特别的防盗措施吗?其实,在建造方法上与其他古墓没什么两样,不同的是,其他墓穴砌筑完后都是用土回填,而这座墓穴是用沙回填。17米深的墓穴,上面回填了11米深的细沙,表层再填土封盖。细沙里放置了1000多块形状各异、大小不同的尖利石块。它被后人称为流沙墓,这就是它防盗的秘密。


我们知道,细沙的流动性很强,当盗墓者挖洞时,旁边的细沙会向洞里流动,掩埋刚挖好的洞。当挖的洞很深时,极易造成塌方,轻则把挖开的洞掩埋,重则会把洞里的人埋掉,更可怕的是藏在细沙里的石头,随着垮塌的沙子坠落,成了打击盗墓者的武器。


在盗墓者眼里,再坚硬的古墓都不在话下,唯独这座古墓,面对散软的黄沙,他们竟束手无策。


这座古墓的防盗构思实在巧妙。一般都是想尽办法用岩石、夯土等坚硬的材料把墓穴建造得坚固。而这座墓穴却一反常规,弃用只有坚硬才坚固的理念,利用细沙的流动性,采用软防御的办法,而且极其成功。谁敢说它不坚固呢?


老子曾说过:“天下莫柔弱于水,而攻坚强者莫之能胜,此乃柔德也。”并感叹,这“柔之胜刚”之道,天下没有人不知道的,而很少人能“行”也。

英语翻译:

In ancient times, emperors, generals and dignitaries did everything possible to build the tombs to be strong and reliable. It cannot be said to be indestructible, but it is not an exaggeration to describe it as rock-solid and indestructible. The purpose is to prevent tomb robbers from digging, but the fact is that many tombs are still being dug and stolen, and some have been looted.


There is an ancient tomb in Shangcai, Henan, built in the Spring and Autumn Period. Archaeologists discovered during excavation in 2005 that 17 holes, large and small, had been dug in the ancient tomb, indicating how many times the tomb robbers had visited. From the research on the relics such as the utensils in the cave, ancient coins, and mineral water bottles, the tomb robbers came from different dynasties. They have all coveted this tomb for a long time, wanting to steal the gold and silver treasures inside. There is no way to study how much they have spent, the only thing that can be verified is that they all gave up halfway and returned without success. Because, after opening the ancient tomb, archaeologists discovered that most of the collections in it were well preserved.


Does this ancient tomb have any special anti-theft measures? In fact, the construction method is no different from other ancient tombs. The difference is that other tombs are backfilled with soil after they are built, while this tomb is backfilled with sand. The 17-meter-deep tomb was backfilled with 11-meter-deep fine sand, and the surface was filled with soil to cover it. More than 1,000 sharp stones of various shapes and sizes are placed in the fine sand. It was called the Quicksand Tomb by later generations. This is the secret of its anti-theft.


We know that fine sand is very fluid. When a tomb robber digs a hole, the fine sand next to it will flow into the hole and bury the hole just dug. When the dug hole is very deep, it is very easy to cause a collapse, ranging from burying the excavated hole to burying the people in the hole, and even more terrifying is the stone hidden in the fine sand falling with the collapsed sand , Became a weapon against tomb robbers.


In the eyes of the tomb raiders, no matter how hard the ancient tomb is, this ancient tomb alone was helpless in the face of the loose yellow sand.


The anti-theft concept of this ancient tomb is really clever. Generally, they try their best to build the tombs with hard materials such as rock and rammed earth. But this tomb is unconventional, abandoning the idea that only hardness is strong, using the fluidity of fine sand, adopting a soft defense method, and it is extremely successful. Who dares to say that it is not strong?


Lao Tzu once said: "The world is not weaker than water, and those who attack the strong cannot win. This is also the soft virtue." And sighed, this "softness overcomes rigidity" way, no one in the world does not know, but very Few people can "do it".


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