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苏州盘门瑞光塔游记

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发表时间:2020-11-15 16:44


瑞光塔,是位于苏州盘门内的一座宋代的古塔建筑。始建于247年(东吴孙权赤乌十年),13层。宋代大中祥符年间(1008-1016)重建时改为7层8面。高约43米。


瑞光寺塔习称瑞光塔,位于城西南盘门内,1956年被列为江苏省文物保护单位,1988年被列为全国重点文物保护单位。


瑞光塔,坐落于江苏省苏州市城西南的盘门内。


瑞光寺初名普济禅院,据志书记载为三国吴赤乌四年(241年)孙权为迎接西域康居国僧人性康而建。十年,孙权为报母恩又建十三层舍利塔于寺中。


根据先后在塔内发现的宝幢木函、佛经、石佛、石础、塔砖等文物上的纪年文字,与塔的平面、结构、外观综合考证,今塔系北宋景德元年(1004年)至天圣八年( 1030年)所建,当时佛寺名为瑞光禅院。


寺院里历经毁修,塔曾于南宋淳熙,明 洪武、永乐、天顺、嘉靖崇祯,以及清康熙、乾隆、道光年间修葺。清咸丰十年 (1860年)又遭兵燹,寺毁塔存,同治十一年(1872年)曾加以维修,有九层。


瑞光塔又称"瑞光寺塔"或"瑞光院塔"。瑞光寺,初名"普济禅院",根据志书的记载,在三国东吴赤乌四年(241年)时,康居国僧人性康来到苏州,吴主孙权为他创建了这座佛寺,是苏州的著名佛寺之一。


赤乌十年(247年)孙权为了报答母恩,在此寺中建造了十三级舍利塔。五代后晋天福二年(937年)重修,并敕赐一枚铜牌置于塔顶。宋宣和年间(1119-1125年)重修时改为七级,并赐额为"瑞光禅寺",相传塔上常常放五色祥光,故而改名为""。


明清两代又经过多次的修葺,但今天寺院的殿堂早已荒废,仅有此塔保存下来,并规划为苏州城南风景区的"盘门三景"之一。


瑞光寺塔为七级八面砖木结构楼阁式,砖砌塔身由外壁、回廊和塔心三部分构成,外壁以砖木斗拱挑出木构腰檐和平座。每面以柱划分为三间,当心间辟壶门或隐出直棂窗。


底层四面辟门,第二、三两层八面辟门,第四至七层则上下交错四面置门。内外转角处均砌出圆形带卷刹的倚柱,柱头承阑额,上施斗拱。外 壁转角铺作出华拱三缝,补间铺作三层以下每面两朵,四层以上减为一朵。全塔 腰檐、平座、副阶、内壁面、塔心柱以及藻井、门道、佛龛诸处,共有各种木、 砖斗拱380余朵。修复后通高约53.6米,底层外壁对边11.2米。层高逐层递减,面 积也相应收敛,外轮廓微呈曲线,显得清秀柔和。

入塔门,经过道即回廊,回廊 两壁施木梁连结,铺设楼面,第二、四层转角铺作上有月梁联系内外倚柱,廊内置登塔木梯。一至五层回廊当中砌八角形塔心砖柱,底层作须弥座式,第六、七 两层改用立柱、额枋和卧地对角梁组成的群柱框架木结构,对角梁中心与大柁上立刹杆木支承塔顶屋架和刹体。塔身底层周匝副阶,立廊柱24根,下承八角形基 台,周边为青石须弥座,对边23米,镌有狮兽、人物、如意、流云,简练流畅, 生动自然,堪称宋代石雕佳作。基台东边有横长方形月台伸出,正面砌踏道。


此塔砖砌塔身基本上是宋代原构,第六、七两层及塔顶木构架虽为后代重修 ,但其群柱框架结构在现存古塔中并不多见。第三层为全塔的核心部位,砌有梁 枋式塔心基座,抹角及瓜棱形倚柱、额枋、壁龛、壶门等处还有"七朱八白"、 "折枝花"等红白两色宋代粉彩壁塑残迹。

1978年发现秘藏珍贵文物的暗窟--"天宫"也在该层塔心内。底层塔心的"永定柱"作法,在现存古建筑中尚属罕 见,从而为研究宋"营造法式"提供了实物依据。瑞光寺塔建造精巧,造型优美 ,用材讲究,宝藏丰富,是宋代南方砖木混合结构楼阁式仿木塔比较成熟的代表作,是研究此类古塔演变发展及建筑技术的重要实例。


瑞光塔是砖木混合的楼阁式建筑,平面呈八角形,共七级,塔身砖砌,由外壁、回廊、塔心三部分组成。塔身的台基为石质须弥座式,座的四周束腰镌有狮兽、花卉、云纹等纹样。


塔身的每层绕有木构的腰檐、平座,每面用柱子分划三间,正中置壶门或直棂窗。底层的正南北和正东西四面辟有四门,第二层、第三层为八面设门,第四层以上则是每上下层相错置门。


塔的转角处都砌有圆形的倚柱,柱间用额枋连接,上施五铺作出双抄斗拱。现存塔残高42.44米,各层的高度依次递减,各层的平面直径也相应依次收敛,使外形的轮廓微成曲线,形制古朴,清秀柔和,隽秀挺拔,保存着唐宋古塔的建筑风格。


1978年4月,在第三层塔心的砖龛内发现了一批五代和北宋初期的珍贵文物,有铜质镀金塔两座,地藏、观音、如来佛菩萨像九尊,五代的手抄经卷、北宋的木刻《妙法莲华经》和嵌螺甸藏经漆匣等,尤其是一座"真珠舍利宝幢",在所出文物中是最为精美的,幢高1.22米,用珠宝编成,集玉石雕刻、金银工艺、木雕、描金、漆雕等艺术于一身,堪称稀世珍宝。


这些文物对研究宋代的社会发展情况和艺术成就具有很高的价值,同时也证实了现存砖砌的塔身是北宋大中祥符二年(1009年)的遗物。


盘门景区瑞光塔。飞檐八角琉璃瓦。五色光环旋彩华。云天下。运河之滨描书画。古朴秀隽堪称甲。苏州旅游于初夏。浏览锦园夸典雅。美无暇。尽收眼底留佳话。


参考翻译:

Ruiguang Tower is an ancient tower of Song Dynasty located in Panmen, Suzhou. It was built in 247 (the decade of Sun Quan Chiwu in the Eastern Wu Dynasty), with 13 floors. In the Song Dynasty Dazhong Xiangfu Period (1008-1016), it was rebuilt with 7 floors and 8 sides. It is about 43 meters high.




Ruiguang Temple Pagoda is often called Ruiguang Tower. It is located in Panmen in the southwest of the city. It was listed as a cultural relics protection unit in Jiangsu Province in 1956 and a national key cultural relics protection unit in 1988.




Ruiguang Tower is located in Panmen, southwest of Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province.




Ruiguang Temple was originally named Puji Temple. According to the chronicle, it was built by Sun Quan in the fourth year of Wu Chiwu in the Three Kingdoms (241 years) to welcome the monks of Kangju in the Western Regions. In ten years, Sun Quan built a thirteen-story stupa in the temple to repay his mother's grace.




Based on the chronological characters on the wooden letters, Buddhist scriptures, stone Buddhas, stone foundations, tower bricks and other cultural relics discovered in the tower successively, and comprehensive textual research on the plane, structure and appearance of the tower, the present tower is the first year of Jingde in the Northern Song Dynasty (1004 It was built in the eighth year of Tiansheng (1030), when the Buddhist temple was named Ruiguang Temple.




The temple was destroyed and repaired. The tower was repaired during the Chunxi of the Southern Song Dynasty, Hongwu, Yongle, Tianshun, and Chongzhen of Jiajing during the Ming Dynasty, and the Kangxi, Qianlong, and Daoguang reigns of the Qing Dynasty. In the tenth year of Xianfeng in the Qing Dynasty (1860), the temple was destroyed by soldiers and the pagoda was destroyed. It was repaired in the eleventh year of Tongzhi (1872), with nine floors.




Ruiguang Pagoda is also called "Ruiguang Temple Tower" or "Ruiguangyuan Tower". Ruiguang Temple was originally named "Puji Temple". According to the records in the chronicle, in the fourth year of Chiwu of the Three Kingdoms (241), the monk of Kang Juguo, Xingkang, came to Suzhou, and Sun Quan, the Lord Wu, created this Buddhist temple for him. It is one of the famous Buddhist temples in Suzhou.




In the tenth year of Chiwu (247 years), Sun Quan built a thirteen stupa in this temple in order to repay his mother's grace. After the Five Dynasties, it was rebuilt in the second year of Jin Tianfu (937), and a bronze medal was placed on the top of the tower. During the Song Xuanhe reign (1119-1125), it was rebuilt to the seventh level, and given the amount of "Ruiguang Zen Temple". According to legend, the pagoda often puts five colors of auspicious light, so it was renamed "".




The Ming and Qing dynasties have undergone many repairs, but today the temple hall has long been abandoned, and only this tower has been preserved, and it is planned to be one of the "Panmen Three Scenic Spots" in the southern scenic area of Suzhou.




Ruiguang Temple Tower is a seven-level and eight-sided brick-wood structure pavilion style. The brick tower body is composed of three parts: the outer wall, the corridor and the tower core. The outer wall is made of brick-wood bucket arches with wooden waist eaves and flat seats. Each side is divided into three rooms by pillars. Be careful to open the pot door or hide the mullion window.




The ground floor has doors on all sides, the second and third floors have doors on eight sides, and the fourth to seventh floors have doors on all sides. At the inner and outer corners, a circular leaning column with a rolling brake is built, and the stigma bears the forehead, and the upper part is used as a bucket arch. The corner pavement on the outer wall is made with three seams of Hua Gong, and the mending pavement is made of two flowers on each side below three floors, and one on each side above four floors. The whole tower There are more than 380 wooden and brick bucket arches in the waist eaves, flat seats, auxiliary steps, inner walls, tower core pillars, algae wells, doorways, and Buddhist altars. After the restoration, the height is about 53.6 meters, and the opposite side of the bottom outer wall is 11.2 meters. The height of the storey gradually decreases, and the area is correspondingly converged. The outer contour is slightly curved, which looks delicate and soft.


Entering the gate, the passage is the corridor. The two walls of the corridor are connected by wooden beams and the floor is laid. The corners of the second and fourth floors are paved with moon beams to connect the inner and outer columns, and the corridor is built with a wooden ladder. The octagonal tower core brick pillars are built in the corridors of the first to fifth floors. The bottom floor is made of Xumi seat type. The sixth and seventh floors are replaced with a column frame wood structure composed of columns, foreheads and diagonal beams lying on the ground. The tower-top roof truss and the brake body are supported by the wooden vertical brake lever. At the bottom of the tower, there are 24 sub-steps and 24 pillars. It supports an octagonal base, surrounded by bluestone Xumi, 23 meters on the opposite side, engraved with lions and animals, figures, Ruyi, and flowing clouds. It is concise and smooth, vivid and natural, and can be called Song Dynasty stone carving masterpiece. On the east side of the base platform, there is a horizontal rectangular platform protruding, and the front side is built with treads.




The brick-built tower of this tower is basically the original structure of the Song Dynasty. Although the sixth and seventh floors and the wooden frame on the top of the tower were rebuilt by later generations, the frame structure of its columns is rare in the existing ancient towers. The third floor is the core part of the whole tower. It is built with a beam-shaped tower core base, wiping corners and melon prismatic leaning columns, foreheads, alcoves, pot doors, etc. There are also "seven bamboos and eight whites" and "folding branches". "Waiting for the remnants of the Song Dynasty famille rose wall sculpture in red and white.


In 1978, it was discovered that the hidden cave of precious cultural relics-"Tiangong" is also in the heart of the tower. The "Yongding Pillar" method in the center of the bottom tower is still rare in the existing ancient buildings, which provides a physical basis for the study of Song's "construction style". Ruiguang Temple Pagoda is exquisitely constructed, beautiful in shape, exquisite materials, and rich in treasures. It is a mature representative work of the southern brick-wood mixed structure pavilion-like wood tower in the Song Dynasty. It is an important example of studying the evolution and development of such ancient towers and construction technology.




Ruiguang Tower is a pavilion-style building with a mixture of brick and wood. The plan is an octagonal shape with seven levels. The tower is made of bricks and consists of three parts: the outer wall, the corridor and the tower core. The base of the tower body is of stone Xumizu style, and the waist of the tower is engraved with lions, beasts, flowers, and clouds.




Each floor of the tower body is surrounded by wooden waist eaves and flat seats. Each side is divided into three rooms with pillars, and the pot door or mullion window is placed in the center. On the ground floor, there are four doors on all sides, the second and third floors have doors on eight sides, and the upper and lower floors have doors staggered on the fourth floor and above.




The corners of the tower are built with circular leaning columns, and the columns are connected by forehead beams, and the upper part is built with five pavilions to form a double arch. The remaining height of the existing tower is 42.44 meters, and the height of each floor decreases successively, and the plane diameter of each floor also converges in order, making the outline of the shape slightly curved, the shape is simple, graceful and soft, bright and straight, preserving the architectural style of the ancient pagoda in the Tang and Song Dynasties .




In April 1978, a group of precious cultural relics of the Five Dynasties and the early Northern Song Dynasty were discovered in the brick niche of the third floor of the tower. There are two gilded bronze pagodas, nine statues of Ksitigarbha, Guanyin, and Tathagata, and the hands of the five generations. The scripture scrolls, the woodcut "Miaofa Lotus Sutra" from the Northern Song Dynasty, and the lacquer box of the inlaid Luodian Tibetan scriptures, especially the "jewel relic treasure tower", which is the most exquisite among the cultural relics, with a height of 1.22 meters and jewelry Knitted, a collection of jade carving, gold and silver crafts, wood carving, gold drawing, lacquer carving and other arts in one, it can be called a rare treasure.




These cultural relics are of great value to the study of the social development and artistic achievements of the Song Dynasty. At the same time, it proves that the existing brick tower is the relic of the second year of Xiangfu in the Northern Song Dynasty (1009).




Ruiguang Tower in Panmen Scenic Area. Cornice octagonal glazed tiles. The five-color halo spins Caihua. Cloud world. Calligraphy and painting on the shore of the canal. Simple and simple Xiujun can be called A. Suzhou travels in early summer. Visit Jinyuan to exaggerate elegance. Immaculate. Leave a story with a panoramic view.



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