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春联

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发表时间:2021-02-23 14:28

春联,起源于桃符。桃符,周代悬挂在大门两旁的长方形桃木板。据《后汉书·礼仪志》说,桃符长六寸,宽三寸,桃木板上书“神荼”、“郁垒”二神。“正月一日,造桃符着户,名仙木,百鬼所畏。”所以,清代《燕京时岁记》上说:“春联者,即桃符也。”


五代时,西蜀的宫廷里,有人在桃符上提写联语。据《宋史·蜀世家》说:后蜀主孟昶令学士章逊题桃木板,“以其非工,自命笔题云:‘新年纳余庆,嘉节号长春’”,这便是我国的第一副春联。直到宋代,春联仍称“桃符”。王安石的诗中就有“千门万户曈曈日,总把新桃换旧符”之句。宋代,桃符由桃木板改为纸张,叫“春贴纸”。


明代,桃符才改称“春联”。明代陈云瞻《簪云楼杂话》中载:“春联之设,自明太祖始。帝都金陵,除夕前忽传旨:公卿士庶家门口须加春联一幅帝微行时出现。”朱元璋不仅亲自微服出城,观赏笑乐,他还亲自题春联。他经过一户人家,见门上不曾贴春联,便去询问,知道这是一家阉猪的,还未请人代写。朱元璋就特地为那阉猪人写了“双手劈开生死路,一刀割断是非根”的春联。联意贴切、幽默。经明太祖这一提倡,此后春联便沿习成为习俗,一直流传至今。


贴福字、贴窗花、贴年画、贴挂千。这些都具有祈福、装点居所的民俗功能。年画是我国的一种古老的民间艺术,他反映了人民大众的风俗和信仰,寄托着人们对未来的希望。年画,也和春联一样,起源于“门神”。春联由神荼、郁垒的名字而向文字发展,而年画依然沿着绘画方向发展。随着木板印刷术的兴起,年画的内容已不仅限于门神之类,而渐渐把财神请到家里,进而在一些年画作坊中产生了《福禄寿三星图》、《天官赐福》、《五谷丰登》、《六畜兴旺》、《迎春接福》等彩色年画、以满足人们喜庆祈年的美好愿望。因明太祖朱元璋提倡春节贴春联,年画也受其影响随之而盛行开来,全国出现了年画三个重要产地:苏州桃花坞,天津杨柳青和山东潍坊;形成了我国年画的三大流派。民国初年,上海郑曼陀将月历和年画二者结合起来。这是年画的一种新形式。这种合二而一的年画,以后发展成挂历。挂千,就是用吉祥语镌于红纸之上,长尺有咫,粘之门前,与桃符相辉映。其上有八仙人物的,为佛前所挂。挂千民户多用它,世家大族用它的较少。其黄纸长三寸,红纸长寸余,是“小挂千”,为市肆所用。最早的挂千当是以制钱(铜钱)串挂的,与压岁钱一样,有压胜的作用

英语翻译

Spring couplets originated from Tao Fu. Peach symbols, rectangular peach planks hung on both sides of the gate in Zhou Dynasty. According to the "Book of Etiquette in the Later Han Dynasty", the peach talisman is six inches long and three inches wide, and the two gods "Shen Tu" and "Yu Lei" are written on the peach board. "On the first day of the first lunar month, a peach symbol was made, and its name was immortal wood, which was feared by a hundred ghosts." Therefore, the Qing Dynasty "Yenjing Times" said: "Spring couplets are also peach symbols."


In the Five Dynasties, in the court of Xishu, some people mentioned joint words on the Tao Fu. According to the "Song History·The Family of Shu", the master of the Shu Dynasty, Meng Chang, ordered the scholar Zhang Xun to write the peach plank, "with his non-work, self-proclaimed inscription: "New Year for Yuqing, Jiajie No. Changchun"", this is our country The first couplet. Until the Song Dynasty, spring couplets were still called "Peach Symbols". In Wang Anshi's poems, there is a sentence that says "every families will always exchange new peaches for old symbols". In the Song Dynasty, the peach symbol was changed from peach wood board to paper, called "chun sticker".


In the Ming Dynasty, Tao Fu was renamed "Spring Couplets". In Ming Dynasty Chen Yunzhan's "Zanyunlou Miscellaneous Talks": "The Spring Festival couplets were established since the first ancestor of the Ming Dynasty. The imperial capital Jinling, before New Year's Eve, suddenly passed the decree: A piece of Spring Festival couplets must be added to the gate of Gongqing Shishu's house." Zhu Yuanzhang Not only did he go out of the city to watch the laughter, he also wrote the Spring Festival couplets in person. When he passed by a house, he saw that there was no Spring Festival couplet on the door, so he asked, knowing that it was a barrower, and he had not asked someone to write it for him. Zhu Yuanzhang specially wrote the spring couplets for the castrated pig-man: "Split the road between life and death with both hands, cut right and wrong with one knife." Lianyi is appropriate and humorous. After the advocacy of the Ming Taizu, the Spring Festival couplets became a custom after that, and it has been passed down to this day.


Paste blessing characters, paste window grilles, paste New Year pictures, paste hanging thousand. These have the folk custom function of praying for blessings and decorating the residence. New Year pictures are an ancient folk art in our country. They reflect the customs and beliefs of the people and entrust people's hope for the future. New Year pictures, like Spring Festival couplets, originated from the "door god". The Spring Festival couplets developed from the names of Shen Tu and Yu Lei to words, while New Year pictures continued to develop along the direction of painting. With the rise of woodblock printing, the content of New Year pictures is not limited to the door gods, but gradually invites the God of Wealth to the home, and then in some New Year painting workshops, "Three Stars of Fortune, Longevity and Life", "Blessings from Heavenly Officials" and " Colored New Year pictures such as "Fruit Harvest", "Six Animals Prosperity", "Welcoming the Spring Festival" and other colorful New Year pictures to satisfy people's happy wishes for celebrating the New Year. As Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang advocated the Spring Festival couplets, New Year paintings became popular due to its influence. Three important origins of the New Year paintings appeared throughout the country: Taohuawu in Suzhou, Yangliuqing in Tianjin and Weifang in Shandong; forming three major schools of Chinese New Year paintings. In the early years of the Republic of China, Shanghai Zheng Mantuo combined the monthly calendar and the New Year pictures. This is a new form of New Year pictures. This kind of two-in-one New Year picture was later developed into a wall calendar. Hanging a thousand means using auspicious words to engrave on the red paper. The long r


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