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走近成都

 二维码 3
发表时间:2020-07-20 12:47

位于成都市金沙博物馆公园内的太阳神鸟雕塑

大家都知道,成都位于我国西南地区,这里沃野千里,依仗都江堰的水利工程,自古以来富足丰饶,拥有“天府之国”之美誉,也称“蓉城”,是全国宜居城市。


如果,您仅仅知道这些还不够,成都还是一座有着悠久历史和深厚文化底蕴的城市,今天,请您跟随我一起去成都看看。


每个城市都有属于自己的标签,要么是厚重的历史遗迹,要么是城市的文化象征,要么是一个地标性建筑,要么是和这座城市发生着千丝万缕联系的某位名人,还可能是这座城市的自然景观等。比如:北京的故宫,杭州的西湖;比如:张爱玲在上海,鲁迅在绍兴;比如:埃菲尔铁塔、巴黎圣母院等等。


成都的标志是什么呢?


是憨态可掬的大熊猫?还是无辣不欢的火锅?抑或是满城金灿灿的银杏叶?他们在某种程度上,都有着与成都相关的元素。但是,放在历史的维度之上看,最能代表成都的,当属“太阳神鸟”。


我们在成都的街头到处可以看到这个“太阳神鸟”的标志。它不仅是成都市的形象标志,也是中国文化遗产的标志。


第一站,我们来到四川省博物院。


位于成都市浣花溪历史文化风景区的四川省博物院,是西南地区最大的综合性博物馆,共收藏了国家一级文物1399件、二级文物6731件。其中最值得观看的是西周时期的“圜钱”。


“圜钱”,它的直径2.5厘米,穿孔圆形,圆边不规则,正面篆书“西周”二字,有内外廓,背平素。


古代青铜器在原始社会后期开始萌芽,夏代得到初步发展,春秋战国时期达到繁盛,秦汉则转为变革与中兴,两晋南北朝至隋唐开始走向衰弱,宋元明清时期流行仿古和伪作。大家看到的这枚“圜钱”出土于成都,说明成都在战国时期已经非常繁荣,并有了货币概念。


第二站,我们看一看三星堆。


我们驱车来到了三星堆,它位于四川省广汉市西北部,三星堆距今已有5000至3000年的历史,是西南最丰富的古蜀文化遗址,被誉为20世纪人类最伟大的考古发现,是“长江文明之源地”,其中出土的历史文物是人类文化遗产和稀世之珍。


其中出土的三星堆金面具、大铜立人和金杖最为有名。


这个黄金面具的大小、造型和铜头像面部特征相同,耳鼻较大,眼和眉部都为镂空,制作精致,看起来十分威严,似乎是权威与神圣的象征。有人怀疑说是外星人入侵的遗物。因此更增添了它的神秘感。


四川,古称为古蜀。“蜀”字上部是个“目”字。有典籍记载,蜀王蚕丛的眼睛是纵目,我们可以在出土的文物中看到。


当地人善于养蚕,自给自足。李白在《蜀道难》中所说的“蚕丛及鱼凫,开国何茫然”。有研究者认为,鱼凫王取代蚕丛后,西迁至三星堆,在此落脚生活,后因战乱火灾,三星堆人神秘消失,只有极少部分人逃出,迁往金沙。一个个历史谜题等待着我们去破解。


第三站,我们再看一看锦里。


锦里,是西蜀历史上最古老、最具商业气息的街道之一,早在秦汉、三国时期便闻名全国。锦里古街依托成都武侯祠,以三国精神为灵魂,以明清建筑风貌为外表,展现了川西民风民俗的市井生活。


逛锦里,必游武侯祠。武侯祠,是中国唯一的君臣合祀祠庙,是最负盛名的刘关张英雄纪念地及三国遗迹博物馆,享有“三国圣地”之美誉。三国的故事早已众所周知,但来到这里,你可以亲身感受三国情结。


逛锦里,有诗云:(雨霖铃 游锦里)


闲游锦里,瞻仰蜀相,时空穿越。三国风云鏖战,刘关张,桃园结义。共图大业情深,令后人赞叹。去去去,烟波浩渺,暮霭茫茫锦江阔。


射弩织锦铜锣声,勾起千年沧海雷电,蚕丛教人养蚕,嫘祖丝,富饶天府。似水流年,古巷街区诗情画意,老树结新枝华发,歌声宛如潮。


成都是佛教最早传入的地区之一。在中国佛教发展史上,成都有着不可轻视的地位,我们可以在成都看到佛教的踪迹。佛教,是一种教人慈悲为怀的宗教,沐浴着佛教的恩惠,成都有了慈悲、洒脱的城市文化品格。他们不怨天尤人,不张扬作秀,将这份慈悲与从容带入他们的生活之中,形成了成都人通达的文化性格。


成都是道教的发源地,又是道教的发祥地,以其为中心,向西南推广,乃至全国。看道教,可去全真道圣地青城山。道教是一种“贵生”的宗教,教人珍惜生命、享受生活。两千多年来道教的浸润,养成了成都人闲散淡定的城市文化心态。


李白、杜甫很多文化名人都曾把成都当作了心灵的家园,享受着古蜀文化的熏陶,在成都创作出留存千古的精彩诗篇,这种厚重的儒家文化滋养了成都人,使成都人骨子里就有着先天的诗意性格。


或许正是成都厚重的历史和文化积淀,才使得成都人在时下紧张的生活节奏中,依然保持着一份通达、淡定、洒脱,保持着淡泊名利、知足常乐的文化性格。也因此,成都成为全国家居城市之一。


我们走马观花,只游览了这三处,其实成都好玩好看的地方还有很多很多。

Sculpture of Sun God Birds in Jinsha Museum Park, Chengdu

As we all know, Chengdu is located in the southwest of China. It is a livable city in China, relying on Dujiangyan water conservancy project. It has been rich and abundant since ancient times, and has the reputation of "land of abundance", also known as "Rongcheng".


If it is not enough for you to know this, Chengdu is still a city with a long history and profound cultural heritage. Today, please follow me to visit Chengdu.


Every city has its own label, which is either a heavy historical site, a cultural symbol of the city, a landmark building, a celebrity who is inextricably linked with the city, or the natural landscape of the city. For example: the Forbidden City in Beijing and the West Lake in Hangzhou; For example: Zhang Ailing is in Shanghai and Lu Xun is in Shaoxing; For example: Eiffel Tower, Notre Dame de Paris and so on.


What is the symbol of Chengdu?


Is it a naive giant panda? Or hot pot without spicy or unhappy? Or the golden ginkgo leaves in the city? To some extent, they all have elements related to Chengdu. However, from the perspective of history, the most representative of Chengdu is the "Sun God Bird".


We can see the sign of "Sun God Bird" everywhere in the streets of Chengdu. It is not only the image symbol of Chengdu, but also the symbol of chinese heritage.


The first stop, we came to Sichuan Provincial Museum.


Sichuan Provincial Museum, located in Huanhuaxi historical and cultural scenic spot in Chengdu, is the largest comprehensive museum in Southwest China, with a total collection of 1,399 national first-class cultural relics and 6,731 second-class cultural relics. One of the most worth watching is "saving money" in the Western Zhou Dynasty.


"Qian Qian", with a diameter of 2.5 cm, round perforation and irregular round edge, is inscribed with the word "Western Zhou Dynasty" on the front, with an inner and outer profile and a plain back.


Ancient bronzes began to sprout in the later period of primitive society, developed preliminarily in Xia Dynasty, flourished in Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, changed into reform and revival in Qin and Han Dynasties, weakened from Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties to Sui and Tang Dynasties, and became popular in Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. The "Qian Qian" you saw was unearthed in Chengdu, which shows that Chengdu was very prosperous during the Warring States Period and had the concept of money.


The second stop, let's take a look at Sanxingdui.


We drove to Sanxingdui, which is located in the northwest of Guanghan City, Sichuan Province. Sanxingdui has a history of 5,000 to 3,000 years. It is the richest ancient Shu cultural site in Southwest China. It is known as the greatest archaeological discovery of mankind in the 20th century and the "source of Yangtze River civilization". The unearthed historical relics are human cultural heritage and rare treasures.


Among them, Sanxingdui Jin Mianju, Datongliren and Golden Staff unearthed are the most famous.


The size and shape of this golden mask are the same as the facial features of the bronze head, with large ears and nose, hollowed out eyes and eyebrows, delicate production, and very dignified appearance, which seems to be a symbol of authority and sacredness. Some people suspect that it is a relic of alien invasion. Therefore, it adds to its mystery.


Sichuan was called ancient Shu in ancient times. The upper part of the word "Shu" is the word "Mu". According to ancient records, the eyes of Can Cong, the king of Shu, are vertical, which we can see in the unearthed cultural relics.


Local people are good at sericulture and are self-sufficient. Li Bai's "until two rulers of this region, pushed their way through in the misty ages" in The Difficult Road. Some researchers believe that after replacing Can Cong, King Yufu moved to Sanxingdui in the west and settled down here. Later, due to war and fire, Sanxingdui people mysteriously disappeared, and only a few people escaped and moved to Jinsha. One historical puzzle is waiting for us to solve.


At the third stop, let's take a look at Jinli again.


Jinli, one of the oldest and most commercial streets in the history of West Sichuan, was famous throughout the country as early as Qin and Han Dynasties and Three Kingdoms Period. Relying on Wuhou Temple in Chengdu, Jinli Ancient Street takes the spirit of Three Kingdoms as its soul and the architectural style of Ming and Qing Dynasties as its appearance, showing the local life of western Sichuan folk customs.


When visiting Jinli, you must visit Wuhou Temple. Wuhou Temple, the only temple in China where the monarch and the minister are enshrined together, is the most famous memorial site for Liu Guanzhang's heroes and the Museum of the Remains of the Three Kingdoms, and enjoys the reputation of "Holy Land of the Three Kingdoms". The story of the Three Kingdoms has long been known, but when you come here, you can feel the complex of the Three Kingdoms for yourself.


When visiting Jinli, there is a poem saying: (Yu Linling travels Jinli)


Wandering around Jinli, paying tribute to Shu, traveling through time and space. The Three Kingdoms are in a fierce battle, Liu Guan Zhang, Taoyuan sworn. A total of great cause of deep feelings, so that future generations praise. Go and go, the smoke is vast, and the twilight is vast.


The sound of shooting crossbows and brocade gongs evokes the thunder and lightning of the Millennium Sea. Can Cong teaches sericulture, Lei Zu silk, and rich abundance. Like the flowing years, the Gu Xiang block is poetic, the old trees bear new branches and blossom, and the songs are like the tide.


Chengdu is one of the earliest areas where Buddhism was introduced. Chengdu plays an important role in the history of Chinese Buddhism, and we can see the traces of Buddhism in Chengdu. Buddhism is a kind of religion that teaches people to be compassionate, bathed in the grace of Buddhism, and Chengdu has a compassionate and free-spirited urban cultural character. They don't complain about others, don't make a show, bring this compassion and calmness into their lives, and form the cultural character of Chengdu people.


Chengdu is not only the birthplace of Taoism, but also the birthplace of Taoism, with it as the center, spreading to the southwest and even the whole country. To see Taoism, you can go to Qingcheng Mountain, the holy land of Quanzhen Road. Taoism is a kind of religion that values life and teaches people to cherish and enjoy life. The infiltration of Taoism for more than two thousand years has cultivated the idle and calm urban cultural mentality of Chengdu people.


Many cultural celebrities such as Li Bai and Du Fu once regarded Chengdu as their spiritual home, enjoying the influence of ancient Shu culture, and creating wonderful poems in Chengdu. This heavy Confucian culture nourishes Chengdu people and makes them have innate poetic character in their bones.


Perhaps it is Chengdu's heavy historical and cultural accumulation that makes Chengdu people still maintain an accessible, calm, free and easy cultural character with indifferent fame and fortune and contentment. Therefore, Chengdu has become one of the home cities in China.


We only visited these three places. In fact, there are many interesting and beautiful places in Chengdu.


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